As we've blogged before, cannabis can be administered in so many different ways. Whether it's ingesting with edibles, vaped, rubbed onto your. Preclinical studies have shown that full-spectrum CBD-rich cannabis oil (with a the best way to proceed when it seems like cannabis dosing is all over the map? . on THC's psychoactivity, CBD makes high potency cannabis oil treatment. The following chart from Mayo Clinic provides specific dosage recommendations for various illnesses: Loss of Appetite in Cancer Patients: mg of THC (orally).
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Research in called for clinical trials to look into the effectiveness of cannabinoids for bipolar disorder manic depression. It also works on the GABA-glutamate system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Its main role is restoring balance through inhibition when levels are too high and enhancement when they are too low.
This is the most likely reason phytocannabinoids in general and CBD specifically are able to regulate depression and anxiety. The scientific inquiry into cannabis over the past several decades has confirmed that it is an effective and safe analgesic for many kinds of pain.
Of all the reasons that people use CBD today, pain is the most common. The same can be said of cannabis in general. In the United States, over seventy million people suffer from chronic pain, which is defined as experiencing over one hundred days per year of pain.
Physicians differentiate between neuropathic usually chronic and nociceptive pains usually time-limited , and cannabis works on most neuropathic and many nociceptive types of pain.
A number of studies have demonstrated that the endocannabinoid system is both centrally and peripherally involved in the processing of pain signals. Cannabinoids can be used along with opioid medications, and a number of studies have demonstrated that they can reduce the amount of opioids needed, lessen the buildup of tolerance, and reduce the severity of withdrawal.
It is suggested that patients work with a health care practitioner experienced in recommending CBD oil or medicinal cannabis so that dosage and delivery methods can be developed and fine-tuned on an individual basis. Oral CBD products with a ratio of Most discussions of treating pain with CBD suggest that finding the right dosage is critical. Always start with the micro dose to test sensitivity and go up as needed within the dosing range by body weight until symptoms subside.
If CBD-dominant products alone are not enough to treat a particular case, products with a higher ratio of THC are sometimes recommended to better manage pain. For day use, more stimulating, sativa varieties with higher concentrations of myrcene could be added to the formula. In general, for pain, and especially for evening and nighttime, indica strains are favored for their relaxing, sedative effect. A person without experience with THC should use caution and titrate slowly up to higher doses.
Research as well as patient feedback have indicated that, in general, a ratio of 4: THC is the most effective for both neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Each individual is different, however—for some, a 1: Chemotypes high in beta-caryophyllene, myrcene, and linalool provide additional pain relief and increase the effectiveness of other cannabinoids for analgesia. For relief of immediate symptoms, as in a flare-up of pain, vaporizing or smoking work well.
The medication effect is immediate and lasts one to three hours, whereas most ingested products take thirty to sixty minutes before taking effect faster on an empty stomach and last six to eight hours. Sublingual sprays or tinctures taken as liquid drops also take effect quickly and last longer than inhaled products. When pain is localized, topical products can be applied. Topicals affect the cells near application and through several layers of tissue but do not cross the blood-brain barrier and are, therefore, not psychoactive.
The skin has the highest amount and concentration of CB2 receptors in the body. Considering all of the studies together, which number over forty for various types of pain , CBD and cannabis are shown to have a rating of likely probable efficacy. It is one of the best-substantiated medical uses of cannabinoids. Sativex, a cannabis plant—derived oromucosal spray containing equal proportions of THC and CBD, has been approved in a number of countries for use to treat specific types of pain.
Numerous randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of Sativex for treatment of central and peripheral neuropathic pain, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer pain. A study showed that CBD and CBC stimulated descending pain-blocking pathways in the nervous system and caused analgesia by interacting with several target proteins involved in nociceptive control. Sleep Disorders Insomnia, Sleep Apnea Cannabis and sleep have a complex relationship that is only beginning to be understood by science.
In general, for most people, indica strains are more relaxing and effective for sleep disorders, whereas sativa strains are more stimulating and tend to keep people awake.
Several studies conducted between and demonstrated the variable effect of different cannabinoids on sleep. Another study found CBD to be wake-inducing for most subjects, though some reported better sleep a few hours after taking it.
However, a significant number of people find THC, even indica strains, will make the mind more active. For these people, CBD oil can benefit them and tends to work well, providing the relaxation and calm for the mental as well as the physical body. For these people, CBD taken at nighttime as part of a bedtime regime produces a restful sleep, not the alertness produced in the daytime.
This bidirectional effect of CBD is the result of balancing the endocannabinoid system. In relation to sleep apnea, a animal study observed the ability of THC to restore respiratory stability by modulating serotonin signaling and reducing spontaneous sleep-disordered breathing. It is suggested that patients work with a health care practitioner experienced in recommending CBD or medicinal cannabis so that dosage and delivery methods can be developed and fine-tuned on an individual basis.
As mentioned previously, while CBD-dominant products help some people sleep, in others it promotes wakefulness. These tend to be high in myrcene and linalool, a terpene shared with lavender and known to be effective for relaxation. Cannabis combinations with ratios of 1: THC can be used when patients want to reduce psychoactivity. Oral consumption is recommended as it usually lasts the whole night. The micro to standard dose is usually recommended to treat insomnia and sleep apnea.
When relaxing indica strains are used with higher THC levels, a dose of 5—10 mg is usually sufficient. Other people find they need larger doses, such as 15—40 mg. CBD taken as a tincture or edible will aid in a restful six to seven hours of sleep.
This type of disorder varies widely from one patient to the next. Often, one needs to perform some experimental research and try strains of different CBD: Using the CBD oil, the patient was able to maintain nonuse of marijuana.
With a subsequent, gradual decrease in anxiety, the patient was able to maintain a regular sleeping schedule Table 2. He was able to get a more secure job as a self-employed driver, and he continued to teach chess to children. He also became more interactive with his family and friends. The current case study found that CBD oil can be an effective compound to use for transitioning an individual off addictive use of marijuana.
However, the patient made significant gains in taking responsible actions and presented fewer erratic and disorganized behaviors. A systematic review of the literature previously had examined 14 studies on the use of CBD oil to modulate various neuronal circuits involved in drug addiction.
One reported consequence of the cessation of daily marijuana use is a withdrawal syndrome that is characterized by irritability, anxiety, marijuana craving, decreased quality and quantity of sleep, and reduced food intake.
The patient reported being less anxious and sleeping better since taking the CBD oil. He reported not using any marijuana since starting the CBD and was proud of his accomplishment of getting a job as a self-employed driver and continuing with teaching chess to children.
The author participated in no competing interests that would have affected the results of the case study. No financial support was provided by CannaVest at any time. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Integr Med Encinitas v. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Scott Shannon, md , is a psychiatrist; and Janet Opila-Lehman, nd , is a naturopathic physician. Scott Shannon, md , E-mail address: Abstract This case study illustrates the use of cannabidiol CBD oil to decrease the addictive use of marijuana and provide anxiolytic and sleep benefits.
Presenting Concerns The patient was a year-old male who presented with a long-standing diagnosis of bipolar disorder and a daily addiction to marijuana. Open in a separate window. Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale The HAM-A scale is a standardized and validated measure of anxiety in an adult population that has been in active use for decades.
Results Using the CBD oil, the patient was able to maintain nonuse of marijuana. Table 2 Patient Sleep. Discussion The current case study found that CBD oil can be an effective compound to use for transitioning an individual off addictive use of marijuana. Patient Perspective The patient reported being less anxious and sleeping better since taking the CBD oil.
Footnotes Author Disclosure Statement The author participated in no competing interests that would have affected the results of the case study.
Cannabidiol interferes with the effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in man. Influence of cannabidiol on delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol effects. Multiple mechanism involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders. Phil Trans R Soc B. The evolution of Cannabis and coevolution with the cannabinoid receptor: The Medicinal Use of Cannabis.
Royal Society of Pharmacists; Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Project CBD Web site. Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol CBD in generalized social anxiety disorder: Modulation of human neutrophil migration by endocannabinoids and phytocannabinoids: Evidence for a site distinct from CB1 and CB2.
Zhornitsky S, Potvin S. Beware of vape pen oil that contains propylene glycol. When overheated, this chemical additive produces a carcinogen byproduct. If vaping, be sure to find a product with pure cannabis oil and no diluting agents.
There's no single ratio that's right for everyone. A person's sensitivity to THC is a key factor in finding the right ratio and dosage. Many people like the cannabis high. Others find THC unpleasant. THC so you can adjust or eliminate psychoactive effects as you prefer. Some patterns are beginning to emerge. For anxiety, depression, spasms, psychosis, and seizure disorders, some people report they do best with little THC. For cancer, autism, and other diseases, some patients say they benefit more from a balanced ratio of CBD and THC like the 4: Extensive clinical trials conducted outside the United States have shown that a 1: THC ratio can be effective for neuropathic pain.
Some people use cannabis products with different CBD: Medical marijuana and CBD , in particular, are very safe, but patients taking other medications should check with their doctor about drug interactions. At sufficient dosages, CBD will temporarily deactivate cytochrome P enzymes, thereby altering how we metabolize a wide range of compounds.
Cytochrome P enzymes metabolize more than 60 percent of pharmaceuticals. CBD is a more potent inhibitor of cytochrome P than the grapefruit compound Bergapten, so ask your doctor if grapefruit interacts with your medication.
Guidance on Using CBD
Table of Contents . CBD is industrially extracted from the cannabis plant and separated from the other cannabinoids, representing Although, CBD oil has not been approved by the FDA for the treatment of any condition, there have been. The THC-rich type of cannabis oil has already been known for some years, and Today, CBD is used for the treatment of a wide range of medical conditions. . Table 1. Analysis of Dutch cannabis oil samples obtained from. Concentrated cannabis oil extracts can also be heated and inhaled with a vape pen. Inhalation is good for treating acute symptoms that require immediate.