Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) defines a group of neurodevelopmental disorders whose symptoms include impaired communication and. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) disease has become a mounting The Endocannabinoids System (ES) consists of a family of locally. Int J Mol Sci. Sep 7;18(9). pii: E doi: /ijms The Endocannabinoid System and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Insights from Animal.
the Endocannabinoid & System Autism
A newer thought for the cause of autism includes the concept of too many synapses; an interesting feature of brain development is that the number of synapses actually decreases as children grow older. In autism, the number of synapses is normally high early in life, but fails to decrease in the usual way. As a result, teenagers with autism end up with more synapses than is typical. Patients with autism may carry a mutation that prevents one of their ubiquitin genes RNF8 from working properly.
To understand the role of ubiquitin genes in brain development, scientists removed the ubiquitin gene RNF8 in neurons in the cerebellum of young mice [the cerebellum is one of the key brain regions affected by autism], the researchers found that neurons that lacked the RNF8 protein.
The growing number of medical benefits of the ECS, such as their ability to regulate processes like neuroinflammation, neurogenesis and memory, raise the question of their potential role as a preventive treatment of ASD. Autism is also characterized by immune system dysregulation. This alteration includes differential monocyte and macrophage responses, and abnormal cytokine and T cell levels, as well as mRNA and protein for CB2 receptor and EC enzymes—further indicating the involvement of the EC system in autism-associated immunological disruptions.
These new findings offer a novel perspective in autism research and indicate that the EC system could represent a novel target option for autism pharmacotherapy.
There are many different types of treatments available; the different types of treatments can generally be broken down into the following categories: Which are the medical cannabis friendly states for autism? In the next issue, I will be discussing the following: Your email address will not be published. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Advice Feb 5, 0. Remarkably, in most of the studies, the drugs were administered systemically.
However, the alterations of the EC system reported in animal models of ASD Table 3 appear to be different depending on the brain region considered, possibly suggesting a different contribution to ASD-like symptoms. If so, any potential therapeutic approach is unlikely to involve a single targeted molecule.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Int J Mol Sci. Published online Sep 7. Find articles by Marina Gabaglio. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Jul 24; Accepted Sep 4. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution CC BY license http: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Autism spectrum disorder ASD defines a group of neurodevelopmental disorders whose symptoms include impaired communication and social interaction with restricted or repetitive motor movements, frequently associated with general cognitive deficits.
Introduction Endocannabinoids ECs are arachidonic acid-derived compounds that, together with their receptors and the associated metabolic enzymes, constitute the endocannabinoid EC system, a neuromodulatory network of lipid signaling pathways [ 1 ].
Table 1 Pharmacological modulators of the endocannabinoid EC system tested in animal models of autism spectrum disorder ASD. Open in a separate window. EC-modulation of ASD-Like Behaviors According to the Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5 , ASD comprises a heterogeneous group of neurological conditions characterized by impaired social communication functions and the presence of restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior or interests that start to emerge in the early developmental period.
Neuroligin-3 NLGN3 Mouse Models NLGNs are postsynaptic cell adhesion molecules required for synaptic function; they orchestrate the maturation and function of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the mammalian brain [ 46 , 47 ]. BTBR Mouse Model In addition to the genetically modified rodent models of ASD, several inbred mouse strains incorporate face validity as ASD models, because they display robust and well-replicated social deficits and repetitive behaviors.
The EC System in Environmental-Based Models Although the most commonly suggested etiology of ASD is through the hereditary genetic characteristics identified as high risk genes for ASD, exposure to environmental factors in the prenatal and early postnatal periods imposes a significant contribution to ASD development [ 60 , 61 ]. Prenatal VPA Exposure Among environmental animal models that show both construct and face validity to ASD, the VPA rat model represents an excellent system to test and develop novel behavioral and drug therapies.
Postnatal LPS Injection Both viral and bacterial infections during pregnancy have been linked to an increased risk to develop ASD in the offspring [ 76 ]. Possible Mechanisms Many morphological and neurochemical abnormalities have been reported in ASD patients as well as in animal models, reflecting the heterogeneous and complex nature of this group of disorders. Conclusions Although the preclinical findings seem to suggest that pharmacological interventions aimed at modulating the EC system could be beneficial for relieving symptoms associated with ASD Table 2 , their preliminary nature does not allow any definite conclusion to be drawn concerning potential therapeutic exploitations.
Table 2 Effects of pharmacological manipulations of the endocannabinoid EC system in animal models of autism spectrum disorder ASD. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. The endocannabinoid system and its modulation by phytocannabinoids. Endocannabinoids as regulators of transient receptor potential TRP channels: A further opportunity to develop new endocannabinoid-based therapeutic drugs.
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The Endocannabinoid System and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Insights from Animal Models
Early studies suggest that the endocannabinoid system may mediate social problems, in patients with autism, so it may be a treatment target in. The endocannabinoid (EC) system represents a major neuromodulatory system involved in the regulation of emotional responses, behavioral reactivity to. By Joseph Rosado, MD, MBA. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that can cause significant social, communication.