Watching your furry friend suffer from lung cancer is heartbreaking. Learn how to recognize the signs and treat lung cancer in dogs. Lung cancer is rare in dogs and cats, but when it does occur, the average age of dogs diagnosed with lung tumors is about 11 years, and in. and cancers of the skin, stomach, lungs, liver, intestines, brain, and other organs. When it comes to treating dogs with cancer, chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery . Mahaney is dubious of the current state of most available pet foods that.
Cancer Available Dogs Lung Treatments – in
In the United States, vinorelbine has been approved by the FDA for use alone or in combination with cisplatin for treatment of humans with advanced-stage non—small-cell lung cancer. A search of pharmacy records at the University of Wisconsin Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital was performed to identify dogs for which a diagnosis of malignant tumors had been made from December to December and for which vinorelbine a had been prescribed. Dogs may have received vinorelbine as postoperative adjuvant treatment when they had unappreciable or microscopically evident disease or as palliative treatment when they had primary or progressive macroscopically evident disease.
For a dog to be included in the study, its medical record was required to contain a thorough medical history, results of a complete physical examination, and data on diagnostic testing and staging suitable to the diagnosis or presumptive diagnosis as well as appropriate and adequate monitoring, cancer restaging, and follow-up information.
Appropriateness and adequacy of monitoring, cancer restaging, and follow-up information were decided on a case-by-case basis by an oncology resident and board-certified veterinary oncologist, with consideration of the diagnosis, extent of therapeutic interventions, and response to treatment.
Dogs were excluded when their medical records lacked adequate information. Information retrieved from the medical records included signalment, clinical signs, relevant physical examination findings, clinicopathologic test results hematologic evaluation, serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, cytologic evaluation, or histologic evaluation , diagnostic imaging results radiography, ultrasonography, CT, and MRI , vinorelbine dosage, and details for surgery, radiotherapy, or other treatments.
Referring veterinarians and owners were contacted when additional information was required. Information obtained from the referring veterinarians or owners predominantly pertained to follow-up and outcomes.
Responses of solid tumors were retrospectively evaluated and categorized in accordance with the VCOG consensus statement on response evaluation criteria in solid tumors, 17 on the basis of absolute or diagnostic-imaging measurements of longest tumor diameter and subsequent variations in these measurements.
To be classified as a response, changes in solid tumor size were required to have been documented for a minimum period of 28 days. Responses of nonsolid tumors ie, lymphoma were also retrospectively evaluated and categorized in accordance with the published response evaluation criteria of the VCOG for peripheral nodal lymphoma in dogs.
A clinical response was defined as resolution of all evidence of disease, with all lymph nodes considered unremarkable in size.
Stable disease was defined as any variation in lymph node size not sufficient to qualify as a partial response or progressive disease. Toxic effects were retrospectively graded by use of the common terminology criteria of the VCOG for adverse events following chemotherapy or biologic antineoplastic treatment in dogs and cats.
Descriptive statistics were calculated to characterize the dogs as a group and by histologic subgroups of tumor and the vinorelbine dosing regimens. Two measures of outcome were evaluated for all dogs and for dogs by histologic subgroups of tumor. Time to tumor progression was defined as the interval from the date on which vinorelbine treatment began until the date of confirmed disease progression local recurrence or metastatic disease.
Overall survival time was defined as the number of days from date of first diagnosis until date of death regardless of whether death was attributable to the primary neoplasia or another cause. Data were considered right censored at the time of last veterinary contact if the dogs remained alive at the conclusion of the study period or if they were ultimately lost to follow-up. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed for both outcome measurements when appropriate, to generate median TTP and OST in various conditions, and the log-rank test was used to then compare these outcome measurements between groups.
Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to identify associations between potential confounding factors and outcome measurements. Statistical comparison of outcomes between dogs specifically those with primary pulmonary carcinoma that underwent surgery and then did or did not receive chemotherapeutic agents, however, was not possible within the scope of the study.
All statistical analyses were performed with 2 commercially available software packages. From December to December , 60 dogs were identified with malignant tumors and had a prescription for vinorelbine in their medical record. Two dogs were excluded because they were immediately lost to follow-up. Median age of included dogs was Twenty-six breeds were represented as follows: Median body weight for all dogs was Twelve histologic types of tumor were represented as follows: Of these 14 dogs, 13 had primary pulmonary tumors, and 1 had a recurrent grade 2 mast cell tumor that was then excised a second time.
All dogs receiving vinorelbine were initially evaluated on a weekly basis, including hematologic testing. Treatment was stopped for the 2 dogs with grade 4 neutropenia and fever. One dog became febrile after receiving the first dose of vinorelbine without becoming neutropenic. One dog developed nonspecific signs of abdominal pain and had increases in liver enzyme activities. These effects were not investigated further, and that dog recovered with supportive treatment based on clinical signs, including analgesia and a delay in dose administration.
One dog developed bilateral hind limb ataxia after receiving a third dose of vinorelbine 15, One dog developed diffuse epidermal crusting with ulcerated and exudative lesions 4 days after receiving the second dose of vinorelbine and received no additional doses. Median duration of follow-up was days range, 5 to 1, days; mean, days.
Four primary lung tumors had epithelial characteristics that were not assigned a more specific histologic or cytologic classification. Median age of dogs with primary pulmonary carcinoma was Median body weight for the dogs was Nine of those dogs had concurrent regional lymph node extirpation. Lymph node metastasis was confirmed histologically in 3 dogs and suspected in another 2 dogs.
Surgical margins were considered incomplete in 3 dogs, and 2 dogs had malignant pleural effusion at the time of lobectomy. Of the 15 dogs that underwent surgery, 13 with no appreciable or microscopically evident disease received vinorelbine as first-line adjuvant treatment. One dog concurrently received piroxicam.
Another dog received multiple chemotherapeutic agents prior to vinorelbine administration, which included carboplatin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, paclitaxel, dolastatin, gemcitabine, endostatin, and docetaxel.
Vinorelbine had been administered while that dog had progressive disease. One dog with progressive disease received no initial adjuvant treatment, and vinorelbine was then administered after progressive disease was diagnosed. During the study period, adjuvant treatment was provided to owners as an option for all dogs with primary lung tumors undergoing lung lobectomy at the teaching hospital.
The recommendation made and the agents selected were at the discretion of the clinician and might have been impacted by clinical findings, including histologic subtype, stage, and grade of the tumors, although ultimately the decision to provide such treatments was made by dog owners.
For all 15 dogs that underwent surgery initially, with or without immediate adjuvant treatment, median TTP was 95 days range, 5 to 1, days , and median OST was days range, 22 to 2, days. For the 13 dogs that received immediate adjuvant treatment with vinorelbine, median TTP was days range, 5 to 1, days , and median OST was days range, 22 to 2, days. Outcomes were not compared between dogs that underwent surgery and then did or did not receive chemotherapeutic agents because this was not possible within the scope of the study.
In 10 dogs, surgery was not performed because confirmation or suspicion of metastatic disease existed at the time of diagnosis. For the remaining dog, the owner made the decision that the dog would not undergo surgery. For 12 of the 16 dogs with macroscopically evident primary pulmonary carcinoma, vinorelbine was the primary palliative treatment. The other 4 dogs with macroscopically evident pulmonary carcinoma received treatment with multiple chemotherapeutic agents prior to receiving vinorelbine, which included cisplatin, carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and piroxicam.
One of these dogs also received treatment with a genetically modified Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium bacterium VNP prior to vinorelbine administration. Following palliative administration of vinorelbine alone or following other treatments, 3 dogs had a partial response for a median duration of 91 days range, 47 to days , 7 had stable disease for a median duration of 68 days range, 52 to days , and 6 had progressive disease for a median of 21 days range, 8 to 32 days.
No dogs with primary pulmonary tumors had a complete response following palliative treatment with vinorelbine. In the 2 dogs that initially underwent surgery but had local recurrence or metastatic disease prior to commencing vinorelbine as a palliative treatment, stable disease was documented for a period of 91 and 48 days, respectively.
When these 2 dogs were included with the aforementioned 16 dogs that received palliative-intent treatment for macroscopically evident disease, then 9 dogs had stable disease with a median duration of 68 days range, 48 to days. Nine dogs with histiocytic sarcoma were treated with vinorelbine. Median age in this subgroup was 7. Five dogs were spayed females, 3 were castrated males, and 1 was a sexually intact male. Median body weight was Only 2 dogs had appendicular cubital [elbow] joint and tibial histiocytic sarcoma.
Both had evidence of metastasis at the time of diagnosis and received palliative treatment only. Three dogs had primary pulmonary lesions, and all 3 underwent lung lobectomy.
Two dogs had subcutaneous lesions, with one in the area of the left prescapular lymph node and the other in the ventral cervical region perhaps effaced and enlarged and therefore displacing the retropharyngeal lymph node or mandibular lymph node. Both lesions were presumed to be metastatic, although no primary tumor was identified, and both were extirpated initially. One dog had primary splenic disease and underwent splenectomy as the primary treatment. The other had primary ocular disease, and enucleation was the initial treatment.
Vinorelbine was administered palliatively to all 9 dogs. Seven dogs had undergone surgery and received lomustine as an adjuvant prior to receiving vinorelbine for treatment of progressive or recurrent disease. One dog with multiple pulmonary metastases at the time of diagnosis and another dog with diffuse metastases to intra-abdominal lymph nodes at the time of diagnosis had received lomustine as the primary palliative treatment prior to receiving vinorelbine for treatment of progressive disease.
The dog with a primary lesion in the elbow joint and suspected metastatic pulmonary disease not confirmed histopathologically received 17 doses of vinorelbine initially at weekly intervals and then every 2 weeks.
A partial response was evident radiographically for the pulmonary lesions 36 days after receiving the initial dose of vinorelbine, and complete resolution of the pulmonary lesions was radiographically evident 91 days after that initial dose, with an overall TTP of days. Measurements of the primary lesion in the elbow joint revealed a decrease in lesion size after treatment, but the associated musculoskeletal changes did not completely resolve. In another dog with a primary splenic lesion, the lesion was surgically removed, but the dog then developed pulmonary metastasis.
That dog had evidence of progressive disease while receiving lomustine, but then had a radiographically apparent complete response 21 days after weekly treatments with vinorelbine began. It received 19 total doses of vinorelbine, with 6 administered once per week, 7 given once every 2 weeks, then another 6 given once per week, and had a TTP of days. The final 6 weekly doses were administered after progressive disease was documented, and these doses resulted in a partial response for a duration of an additional 50 days.
Four other dogs had stable disease for a median TTP of 61 days range, 35 to days. In 2 of those dogs, progressive disease was detected within 12 to 27 days after vinorelbine treatment began, after which the dogs were euthanized. Another dog that received 4 doses of vinorelbine at weekly intervals had evidence of progressive disease 28 days after treatment began.
Five dogs with mast cell disease were treated with vinorelbine. Median age of this subgroup was 8. Three were spayed females, 1 was a castrated male, and 1 was a sexually intact male. In all dogs, high-grade mast cell tumors had been diagnosed on the basis of histopathologic findings and biological behavior of the tumors. Four dogs had confirmed evidence of regional lymph node metastasis when vinorelbine administration started; in the fifth dog, lymph node involvement was suspected in addition to the confirmed presence of local disease recurrence.
All dogs had received vinblastine and prednisolone prior to vinorelbine administration as well as various combinations of lomustine, cyclophosphamide, masitinib, and toceranib phosphate. Two dogs received only 1 dose of vinorelbine, and progressive disease was evident shortly thereafter. One dog underwent a third cytoreductive surgery followed by 3 doses of vinorelbine, although the third dose was administered because of rapid local recurrence.
One dog developed crusting, ulcerated, and erosive skin lesions 4 days after the second dose was administered and received no additional treatment. Histologic evaluation was not performed; therefore, the exact etiology of these lesions could not be ascertained. One dog received 8 doses of vinorelbine and had stable disease for 87 days.
Four dogs with multicentric lymphoma were treated with vinorelbine. Median age of this subgroup of dogs was 5. Two were sexually intact females and 2 were castrated males. All dogs had advanced-stage multicentric lymphoma. Two dogs had B-cell lymphoma, 1 dog had T-cell lymphoma, and 1 dog had mixed B-cell and T-cell lymphoma.
Vinorelbine was administered as a rescue medication to all 4 dogs with multicentric lymphoma. All dogs had received multiple chemotherapeutic agents prior to vinorelbine treatment, including a protocol involving cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone, followed by several other rescue medications and protocols. Two dogs one with T-cell and the other with mixed B- and T-cell lymphoma received only 1 dose of vinorelbine, and progressive disease was detected 8 and 17 days later, soon after which the dogs were euthanized.
One dog with stage IIIa multicentric B-cell lymphoma received 4 doses of vinorelbine and had a short-lived partial response for 21 days. A second dog with stage IIIa multicentric B-cell lymphosarcoma received 8 doses of vinorelbine and had stable disease for 56 days.
Two dogs with melanoma were included in the study. In both dogs, progressive disease was evident after receiving 3 or 4 weekly doses of vinorelbine. A 9-year-old female apparent German Shepherd Dog cross had apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma that was macroscopically evident and metastatic. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are meant to improve the survival chances of a dog with lung cancer. The survival rates are not encouraging, but these procedures can buy your dog more time.
A squamous cell carcinoma of the lung is a type of tumor that occurs in lung metastases from the squamous epithelium. This is a rare type of primary tumor that has a high metastatic potential, especially if it reaches the regional lymph nodes.
In other words, a squamous epithelium is a type of epithelium that has flat, scale-like cells. The term epithelium refers to the cell coverage of all internal and external surfaces of both people and dogs bodies. However, this is a severe form with very disappointing survival rates. Among the symptoms of this cancer type are cough, lethargy, inability to exercise normally, weight loss, limping, increased breathing rate and coughing up blood.
Remember that only some of these symptoms might be visible in your dog. The occurrence of all is not necessary in order to be sure that your beloved pet has serious problems. Waiting too long is never a good idea when the implications of such sickness are severe and sometimes even deadly. Just like in the case of lung adenocarcinoma, you must provide an accurate medical history of your pooch and present its symptoms along with the exact moment when they started to occur.
A standard clinical exam includes routine laboratory tests with a complete blood count, a biochemical profile and urinalysis. The result of blood tests may reveal an increased number of white blood cells levels that are also known as leukocytosis levels, which are indicative of an invasion, determining the body to fight against it. Biochemistry profiles in some patients may reveal abnormally high calcium levels. Besides these tests, a veterinarian can and probably will request an endoscopy.
Typically, the result of this test is enough to establish an initial diagnosis. X-rays are also necessary because they can reveal obstructions of the airways. However, the most conclusive test is a biopsy that is much more invasive than an endoscopy. Sadly, most canine patients will need surgery if they are affected by squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.
Chemotherapy is also recommended by oncologists immediately after the diagnosis is clear. A complete resection of the affected lung lobe is often the only way to stop this highly metastatic cancer from spreading. Such an intervention will provide the best opportunity for long-term survival of the patient.
If lymph node involvement is suspected, a sample will be taken from there as well. If they lymph nodes are involved, the veterinarian can remove them to prevent the further dissemination of the cancer cells. Sadly, this type of lung cancer is ruthless.
However, even with treatment, the general survival time is not more than a few months. Sometimes trying to remove the tumor and putting your dog through chemotherapy might not have good enough results to be worth all the suffering. An oncologist can sincerely advise you to go further with the surgery and treatment or not. Chemotherapy is highly toxic, has side effects and it might be too tormenting for your fragile canine friend to handle. Dogs are victims of passive smoking because of their owners.
They inhale the emanated cigarette smoke and swallow toxic substances that are deposited on their furs. This situation leads to the development of lymphoma, bronchitis and, ultimately, cancer. You can protect both your dog and yourself by giving up smoking.
In case you are not a smoker, but your friends are, try to keep your pooch away from them when they feed their vice. Dogs are often victims of passive smoking. Chronic bronchitis may extend to the lungs and the doggy may then develop pneumonia. In case of dogs, the toxic compounds contained by cigarettes are responsible for the occurrence of mouth, throat and lung cancer. Dogs with long noses such as collies and shepherds are at risk of getting cancer more than dogs with short noses.
However, pugs are prone to developing lung cancer if they smoke passively. Cancer under any form is ruthless for any canine specimen. Some can be detected and treated, while some are too severe to be cured or to at least be led into remission. Although it involves a lot of responsibility, having a dog with lung cancer should not feel like the end of the world.
Different experiments are made every day and the available treatments are in a continuous change. Remember that your state of mind is reflected on your dog. Therefore, stay positive and avoid exposing your dog to factors that can trigger the formation of tumors in its adorable little body. Wyatt Robinson had a great years career as a veterinarian in United Kingdom. He used to be a member of British Veterinary Association and worked in 3 pet hospitals in London and Manchester. He is shining when he sees his pets healthy and full of energy and it is his duty to help other dog owners to keep their best friends full of life.
Written by Wyatt Robinson. Most Common Canine Tumors.
Lung Cancer in Dogs: General Symptoms And Types of Carcinoma
Compared to people, primary lung cancer is very uncommon in dogs. therapy) is the newest and most convenient treatment available for primary lung cancer. Lung tumors are relatively rare in dogs, accounting for only 1% of all cancers Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for dogs with lung carcinoma, provided no. According to the reports, average age of dogs with primary lung tumors has Treatment — Pulmonary carcinomas are best managed with surgical extirpation.